The history of the apple

Of all agricultural commodities, the apple has the longest history.

God had told her to resist the lure of the red fruit! Alas, only after Eve had chewed the apple that problems started.

Troubles for men, of course, but also for the apple itself, decked from that moment with a great reputation: the Middle Ages, in particular, will not cease to represent the apple tree as the tempter. Yet! Nothing says that the fruit of knowledge was an apple.

One can even doubt and think that the analogy between the two Latin words denoting the apple (malum) and evil (malus) is the main reason in the choice of this fruit. Moreover, the first mention of the apple as the fruit of the original sin only appears at the fifth century of our era!

Far from feminine curves and cheeks jugglers, traditions also want the apple to be considered the mythical and mystical fruit par excellence, a symbol of immortality, wisdom and supreme authority as the golden apple which, under the Roman Emperors represented the earth or the sun.

Also present on the equestrian statue of Justinian in Constantinople, holding in his hand a gilded copper globe nicknamed the “red apple”: it is on this globe that the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire placed a cross emblem as a new representation of power. From the time of Adam and Eve to the present day, the apple is the fruit steeped in history and symbolism. It went through the ages, but it has also played a role in mythology. Discover some of its history now.

Did you know that the Neolithic man from the plateaus of Anatolia was a gastronome: it is he who first appreciated the edible varieties produced by a shrub as apple appeared on earth here 80 million years ago. It is also he who will lead Apple to conquer the temperate regions of Europe and, much later, the world.

The beautiful Thetis, sea goddess, did not stand to be evicted for the beauty price given to Venus. When the goddess of love, in search of beads and shells on the shores of Normandy put her apple on a rock, a newt stole it and brought it to Thetis. Therefore she sowed the seeds in the neighboring country, which explains the large number of apple trees growing in Normandy and the singular beauty of the daughters of this country. This love apple product today is the great Norman cider!

In proposing this golden apple to the most beautiful woman in world, Eris, the nymph Discord was sure and certain to sow discord! In fact, by offering an apple to Aphrodite, the shepherd Pâris certainly won the love of Helen, but at the same time attracted the wrath of her husband Menelaus and of the two goddesses, Hera and Athena. That is how, once again, an apple with a seductive appeal led to misfortune: nothing less than the Trojan War!

It is also an apple that blocked the race of Atalanta and a series of apples will be at stake in the torture of Tantalus. Not to mention the golden apples of the Hesperides that Hercules, among other works, stole with the help of Atlas.

The Greeks were not mistaken either. Three centuries before our era, in his History of Plants, Theophrastus distinguished six varieties of apples mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey with the flattering term “beautiful fruit”: the rustic, the wild, the early spring, the sweet, the epirotic and the urban apple. Six different types of varieties that the Romans increased to a good thirty until pomology, consecrated as a true science in the late 16th century, found more than one hundred in France alone!

In the 19th century, a golden age saw the creation of numerous apple varieties as they get more tasty and better suited for wide dissemination. It is then over 500 varieties well differentiated that are described at the time in the dictionary which put some order in the existing nomenclature. The work of many botanists will do the rest: the fruit of many intersections and developments, apple now boasts a range of six thousands gourmet varieties spread across the world.

Nowadays this fruit continues to mark our imagination. The apple is considered by medical scientists one of the best food to fight diabetes and other disease and stay healthy. And after all New York City is called The Big Apple. One of the largest high-tech company is called Apple. Last but not least, a part of the human body is called Adam’s apple.

An Overview Of The Financial Markets

Alike parlance, a market is a location where trading takes place. Whenever we consider markets, an image that blinks across our thoughts is of a place which is quite hectic, with purchasers and vendors, some sellers, shouting at the top of their voice, attempting to entice clients to get their items.

In the early stages of civilization, people were self-dependent. They grew everything they needed. Food was the primary commodity, which could be very quickly increased at the backyard, and for the non-vegetarians, jungles were open without limitations on hunting.

However, with the development of civilization, the necessities of every being increased; they required clothes, items, instruments, tools and lots of various other points which could not be conveniently made or produced by one person or household. Hence, the requirement of an usual spot was really felt, where people which had a commodity to offer and the people who required that product, could gather satisfy their common demands.

With time, the fashion in which the marketplaces operated transformed and developed. Markets came to be an increasing number of sophisticated and concentrated on their purchase so about save time and space. Different sort of markets entered being which concentrated on a particular sort of commodity or transaction.

In today’s world, there are markets which cater to the necessities of manufacturers, sellers, ultimate consumers, little ones, women, men, pupils and just what not. For the discussion of the topic available, the various type of markets that already existing in today day can be extensively categorized as products markets, solution markets and financial markets. The present post finds to provide an introduction of Financial Markets.

What is a financial market?

Financial Markets, as the name proposes, is a market where different financial tools are traded. The musical instruments that are sold these markets differ in attributes.

They are in truth perfectly fitted to suit the demands of numerous people. At a macro level, individuals with excess money provide their money to the people who need it for investment in various type of tasks.

There is another gamer in the financial market aside from purchasers and vendors. The one which wishes to provide money and the one who intends to spend the cash may be located in various topographical locations, very much from each various other. A common location for this transaction will certainly need the meeting of these individuals personally to shut the transaction.

This may once more lead to a bunch of hardship. It may also hold true that the rate at which the lender wishes to lend his money or the period for which he desires his money to incur passion, may not be acceptable to the borrower of the cash. This would cause a bunch of flaws and latches for closing the deal.

To fix this trouble, we have a physical body called the Intermediaries, which run in the financial markets. Middlemen are the ones from whom the borrowers obtain the harbored cost savings of the lenders. Their main feature is to function as associated with mobilize the funds from the lender to the debtor.

Financial Markets are complex and unpredictable. The movements in financial markets of one country may be the result of cases happening in some foreign land. It might be challenging to comprehend the financial markets at a provided time and spot. Nonetheless, an intelligent gamer in financial markets consistently takes choices by very carefully examining the trends in the financial markets and closely complying with the cues in the residential and worldwide markets.

One also has to be clear about why one would like to go into the financial markets. If one intends to enter into as a capitalist, one must invest in safeties which have the potential of returning his investment with interest after the amount of time for which one intends to spend. In this situation one needs to generally buy protections which are protected and have a reputation of giving excellent returns.

On the other hand, if one intends to trade in safeties, one should thoroughly learn the fads prevailing in the everyday markets and make an intelligent choice by basing one’s judgment on that ground. To lessen threats, one should have a diverse portfolio, to ensure that even if one or some of the financial investments endure, the others make good one’s loss.

Labor psychology

Psychology of Labour can be broadly defined as the study of man in his workplace.

It analyzes the relationship between the individual and his work activity, the relationship between the individual and the organization to which it is subject, relations between groups or between organizations. Psychology of labour is twofold: one theoretical to constitute a body of knowledge on business and human subjectivity in work situations, the other practice in its diversity, in order to solve problems in various fields of intervention. Psychology of labour is thus born of a humanist commitment to adapting work to man.

The labour psychologist forms the analysis of labour in order to transform the professional community. He seeks to study behavior, skills, relationships within members of a company. His work is first and foremost to listen and advise. It occurs during job interviews to try to capture and understand the true personality of the candidate, he participates in career management, involved in the integration process or vocational rehabilitation, he conducts interviews for orientation and mobility, calls for training and also works on issues of pathology at work.

The occupational psychologist may serve different positions within a company. He can work either for the human resources department or occupational medicine. His positioning is related to the title of his post. As he is hired as a recruiter, an HR manager or an internal consultant, his way of working is different.

The constant changes in legislation on the safety of employees as well as ISO standards becoming indispensable have forced leaders to use consultants recurrently to implement the necessary steps to comply to these rulings. Many companies having had recourse to external consultants (independent or belonging to a consulting firm ) decided to entrust the task of looking for a permanent employee of the company.

For the internal consultant to be effective and efficient he must be innovative . Now, to be innovative , the consultant must have good flexibility. Numerous trainings enable internal consultants to get the tools necessary for such an approach.

In addition, they have the advantage of knowing the company, its stated objectives and actual customs, modes of communication , etc. The internal consultant is at home and logically knows every corner and the history of the company that may remain inaccessible to an external consultant.

Provided his situation is he preferable to an external consultant? This is not certain. Indeed, the employment contract between the employer and the internal consultant is not immune to subordination. The employee must not only do a good job but it also must please his employer, to keep his job.

In this position, the internal consultant can then be a tendency to a problem posed by its internal sponsor to accept the solution that this advances. However, no solution can be envisaged without a proper analysis of the order. In this context, the use of a psychologist working in this position will make the difference.

Indeed, it may be included in the employment contract a clause obligation to respect the code of ethics for psychologists. This protects the ethics insofar as it is to say what does and does not please the company. In addition, it involves the concept of professional secrecy. This concept requires only to reveal what is a direct and certain relationship with the current analysis. Insurance of professional secrecy by both the employer and the consultant allows other employees to provide information in confidence.

Another aspect of the advantage of using a psychologist work is his knowledge and mastery of many analytical techniques. It is tempting to quickly give the most obvious conclusion, the occupational psychologist knows how to give time to a thorough wary of evidence analysis. For example if an employee is caught playing online poker on his computer, it does not mean he is a gambling addict. Playing games once in a while could be fine depending of the achievements of a particular employee.

It is tempting for all the powers that are in the business to exploit the consultant (internal or external). The occupational psychologist is aware of the power plays in a company and knows how to protect himself from them. Another mistake is to move towards a solution that the consultant knows.

However, the occupational psychologist by his conduct has an obligation to update their knowledge. And it must constantly inform solutions that other companies put in place to solve various problems. This search for external information allows the psychologist job to be innovative.

There are other known social psychological bias, but it would take too long to detail here. Psychologists work remains a major asset in the company and a careful selection for the post of internal consultant is recommended.